Jobs, Career, Salary and Education Information (2023)

Career, Salary and Education Information

What They Do: Recreational therapists plan, direct, and coordinate recreation-based treatment programs for people with disabilities, injuries, or illnesses.

Work Environment: Recreational therapists work in a variety of settings, including hospitals, nursing homes, and government parks and recreation departments. Most therapists work full time.

How to Become One: Recreational therapists typically need a bachelor’s degree. Many employers require therapists to be certified.

Salary: The median annual wage for recreational therapists is $47,940.

Job Outlook: Employment of recreational therapists is projected to grow 4 percent over the next ten years, about as fast as the average for all occupations.

Related Careers: Compare the job duties, education, job growth, and pay of recreational therapists with similar occupations.

Following is everything you need to know about a career as a recreational therapist with lots of details. As a first step, take a look at some of the following jobs, which are real jobs with real employers. You will be able to see the very real job career requirements for employers who are actively hiring. The link will open in a new tab so that you can come back to this page to continue reading about the career:

Top 3 Recreational Therapist Jobs

  • Recreational Therapist - RECT - Corrections - 5977 - Ro Health- Corrections - Sacramento, CA

    ASAP Required Recreational Therapist Qualifications: * Recreation Therapist Certification by the California Board of Parks OR Certification as a Certified Therapeutic Recreation Specialist from the ...

  • FT Certified Recreational Therapist, INCLUDES $5K BONUS - San Antonio Behavioral Health - San Antonio, TX

    Certified Recreational Therapist (Expressive Arts writing, music, dance, etc.), Looking for several Full-Time and PRN employees! INCLUDES $5K BONUS $5,000 bonus paid out to full-time staff only, in ...

  • Recreational Therapy Assistant - Assisted Residential Services, Inc - Spokane, WA

    We are looking for a Recreational Therapy Assistant to join our team, our main focus is: Adaptability - In this position, you should be able to adjust to new conditions. Change is a constant with our ...

See all Recreational Therapist jobs

What Recreational Therapists Do[About this section] [To Top]

Recreational therapists plan, direct, and coordinate recreation-based treatment programs for people with disabilities, injuries, or illnesses. These therapists use a variety of modalities, including arts and crafts; drama, music, and dance; sports and games; aquatics; and community outings to help maintain or improve a patient's physical, social, and emotional well-being.

Duties of Recreational Therapists

Recreational therapists typically do the following:

  • Assess patients' needs using observation, medical records, tests, and discussions with other healthcare professionals, patients' families, and patients
  • Develop treatment plans and programs that meet patients' needs and interests
  • Plan and implement interventions to support the client in meeting his or her goals
  • Engage patients in therapeutic activities, such as exercise, games, and community outings
  • Help patients learn social skills needed to become or remain independent
  • Teach patients about ways to cope with stress, anxiety, or depression
  • Document and analyze a patient's progress
  • Evaluate interventions for effectiveness

Recreational therapists help people reduce depression, stress, and anxiety; recover basic physical and mental abilities; build confidence; and socialize effectively.

They use interventions, such as arts and crafts, dance, or sports, to help their patients. For example, a recreational therapist can help a patient who is paralyzed on one side of his or her body by teaching patients to adapt activities, such as casting a fishing rod or swinging a golf club, by using his or her functional side.

Therapists often treat specific groups of patients, such as children with cancer. Therapists may use activities such as kayaking or a ropes course to teach patients to stay active and to form social relationships.

Recreational therapists help people with disabilities integrate into the community by teaching them how to use community resources and recreational activities. For example, therapists may teach a patient who uses a wheelchair how to use public transportation.

Therapists may also provide interventions for patients who need help developing social and coping skills. For example, a therapist may use a therapy dog to help patients manage their depression or anxiety.

Therapists may work with physicians or surgeons, registered nurses, psychologists, social workers, physical therapists, teachers, or occupational therapists. Recreational therapists are different from recreation workers, who organize recreational activities primarily for enjoyment.

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Work Environment for Recreational Therapists[About this section] [To Top]

Recreational therapists hold about 17,600 jobs. The largest employers of recreational therapists are as follows:

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Hospitals; state, local, and private 40%
Government 18%
Nursing care facilities (skilled nursing facilities) 14%
Ambulatory healthcare services 8%
Social assistance 7%

They use offices for planning or other administrative activities, such as patient assessment, but may travel when working with patients. Therapy may be provided in a clinical setting or out in a community. For example, therapists may take their patients to community recreation centers or parks for sports and other outdoor activities.

Some therapists may spend a lot of time on their feet actively working with patients. They may also need to physically assist patients or lift heavy objects such as wheelchairs.

Recreational Therapist Work Schedules

Most recreational therapists work full time. Some recreational therapists work evenings and weekends to meet the needs of their patients.

How to Become a Recreational Therapist[About this section] [To Top]

Get the education you need: Find schools for Recreational Therapists near you!

Recreational therapists typically need a bachelor's degree. Many employers require therapists to be certified by the National Council for Therapeutic Recreation Certification (NCTRC).

Education for Recreational Therapists

Recreational therapists typically need a bachelor's degree, usually in recreational therapy or a related field such as recreation and leisure studies.

Recreational therapy programs include courses in assessment, human anatomy, medical and psychiatric terminology, characteristics of illnesses and disabilities, and the use of assistive devices and technology. Bachelor's degree programs usually include an internship.

Licenses, Certifications, and Registrations for Recreational Therapists

Most employers prefer to hire certified recreational therapists. The NCTRC offers the Certified Therapeutic Recreation Specialist (CTRS) credential. Candidates may qualify for certification through one of three pathways. The first option requires a bachelor's degree in recreational therapy, completion of a supervised internship of at least 560 hours, and passing an exam. The other options also require passing an exam, but allow candidates with a bachelor's degree in an unrelated subject to qualify with various combinations of education and work experience. In order to maintain certification, therapists must either pass an exam or complete work experience and continuing education requirements every 5 years.

The NCTRC also offers specialty certification in five areas of practice: behavioral health, community inclusion services, developmental disabilities, geriatrics, and physical medicine/rehabilitation. Therapists also may earn certificates from other organizations to show proficiency in specific therapy techniques, such as aquatic therapy or aromatherapy.

Only a small number of states require licensure or otherwise regulate the work of recreational therapists. For specific requirements, contact the state's medical board.

Important Qualities for Recreational Therapists

Compassion. Recreational therapists should be kind and empathetic when providing support to patients and their families. They may deal with patients who are in pain or under emotional stress.

Leadership skills. Recreational therapists must plan, develop, and implement intervention programs in an effective manner. They must be engaging and able to motivate patients to participate in a variety of therapeutic activities.

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Listening skills. Recreational therapists must listen carefully to a patient's problems and concerns. They can then determine an appropriate course of treatment for that patient.

Patience. Recreational therapists may work with some patients who require more time and special attention than others.

Resourcefulness. Recreational therapists customize treatment plans for patients. They must be both creative and flexible when adapting activities or programs to each patient's needs.

Speaking skills. Recreational therapists need to communicate well with their patients. They must give clear directions during activities or instructions on healthy coping techniques.

Recreational Therapist Salaries[About this section] [More salary/earnings info] [To Top]

The median annual wage for recreational therapists is $47,940. The median wage is the wage at which half the workers in an occupation earned more than that amount and half earned less. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $31,710, and the highest 10 percent earned more than $80,610.

The median annual wages for recreational therapists in the top industries in which they work are as follows:

Government $64,780
Ambulatory healthcare services $54,370
Hospitals; state, local, and private $50,970
Nursing care facilities (skilled nursing facilities) $43,570
Social assistance $37,660

Most recreational therapists work full time. Some recreational therapists work evenings and weekends to meet the needs of their patients.

Job Outlook for Recreational Therapists[About this section] [To Top]

Employment of recreational therapists is projected to grow 4 percent over the next ten years, about as fast as the average for all occupations.

About 1,500 openings for recreational therapists are projected each year, on average, over the decade. Many of those openings are expected to result from the need to replace workers who transfer to different occupations or exit the labor force, such as to retire.

Employment of Recreational Therapists

As large numbers of the U.S. population move into older age groups, more people will need recreational therapists to help treat age-related injuries and illnesses. Older people are more likely than younger people to experience Alzheimer’s disease, a stroke, or mobility-related injuries and to benefit from treating these conditions with recreational therapy. Therapists also will be needed to help healthy seniors remain social, active, and independent in their communities as they age.

In addition, the number of people with chronic conditions, such as diabetes and obesity, is growing. Recreational therapists will be needed to help patients maintain their mobility, learn how to manage their conditions, and adjust recreational activities to accommodate physical limitations. Therapists also will be needed to plan and lead programs designed to maintain overall wellness through participation in activities such as camps, day trips, and sports.

Employment projections data for Recreational Therapists, 2021-31
Occupational Title Employment, 2021 Projected Employment, 2031 Change, 2021-31
Percent Numeric
Recreational therapists 17,600 18,200 4 600

Careers Related to Recreational Therapists[About this section] [To Top]

Athletic Trainers

Athletic trainers specialize in preventing, diagnosing, and treating muscle and bone injuries and illnesses.

Exercise Physiologists

Exercise physiologists develop fitness and exercise programs that help patients recover from chronic diseases and improve cardiovascular function, body composition, and flexibility.

Occupational Therapists

Occupational therapists treat injured, ill, or disabled patients through the therapeutic use of everyday activities. They help these patients develop, recover, improve, as well as maintain the skills needed for daily living and working.

Physical Therapists

Physical therapists, sometimes called PTs, help injured or ill people improve their movement and manage their pain. These therapists are often an important part of the rehabilitation, treatment, and prevention of patients with chronic conditions, illnesses, or injuries.

Rehabilitation Counselors

Rehabilitation counselors help people with physical, mental, developmental, or emotional disabilities live independently. They work with clients to overcome or manage the personal, social, or psychological effects of disabilities on employment or independent living.

School and Career Counselors

School counselors help students develop the academic and social skills needed to succeed in school. Career counselors help people choose careers and follow a path to employment.

Social Workers

Social workers help people solve and cope with problems in their everyday lives. Clinical social workers also diagnose and treat mental, behavioral, and emotional issues.

Special Education Teachers

Special education teachers work with students who have a wide range of learning, mental, emotional, and physical disabilities. They adapt general education lessons and teach various subjects, such as reading, writing, and math, to students with mild and moderate disabilities. They also teach basic skills, such as literacy and communication techniques, to students with severe disabilities.

Speech-Language Pathologists

Speech-language pathologists (sometimes called speech therapists) assess, diagnose, treat, and help to prevent communication and swallowing disorders in children and adults. Speech, language, and swallowing disorders result from a variety of causes, such as a stroke, brain injury, hearing loss, developmental delay, Parkinson's disease, a cleft palate, or autism.

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More Recreational Therapist Information[About this section] [To Top]

For more information and materials on careers and academic programs in recreational therapy, visit

American Therapeutic Recreation Association

For more information about certification, visit

National Council for Therapeutic Recreation Certification

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A portion of the information on this page is used by permission of the U.S. Department of Labor.

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