Guide to Logical Reasoning on the LSAT - CRUSH The LSAT 2023 (2023)

Guide to Logical Reasoning on the LSAT - CRUSH The LSAT 2023 (1)The logical reasoning section of the Law School Admissions Test (LSAT) is one of the most important on the entire exam. This is because the exam’s structure features sections that are weighted, with logical reasoning taking the lion’s share of weight when determining your final score on the LSAT. The logic games section and the reading comprehension section are each weighted at 25%, while the LSAT logical reasoning section takes a whopping 50% of your entire LSAT exam grade.

Why is this? There are actually two logical reasoning sections on the exam, while there is only one reading comprehension section and one analytical reasoning section.

If you do poorly on logic games or reading comprehension, your score will suffer. However, if you bomb the logical reasoning section, it will severely impact your score.

With that in mind, it’s important to fully understand what to expect on the logical reasoning portion, and create a study strategy that will help you crush the LSAT exam!

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What is the purpose of the LSAT logical reasoning section?

It probably comes as no surprise that being able to reason with logic is integral to success in law school and in life as an attorney. In both areas, you’ll come across a lot of arguments; in fact, arguments are fundamental to law. Therefore, you’ll need to be able to analyze these effectively and understand the logic behind them.

Consequently, critical thinking is a skill expected and built upon in law school. One measure of your ability to display critical thinking is the logical reasoning section of the LSAT.

Guide to Logical Reasoning on the LSAT - CRUSH The LSAT 2023 (2)

Specifically, the logical reasoning section measures your ability to analyze and evaluate arguments. The arguments presented are not lengthy legal arguments – instead, they’re written in everyday language and pulled from newspapers, school papers and magazines. Each passage mirrors legal reasoning, but isn’t presented in legal terms.

Because of this, you aren’t expected to know legal vocabulary or lengthy Latin phrases (thank goodness!) However, in order to succeed, you will have to have a basic understanding of arguments and their terms (like debate, refute, premise, assumption and conclusion) to perform well on this portion of the test.

If you don’t know these terms and understand how to pick them out in an argument, you should brush up before the test to maximize your understanding of the passages and questions.

Understanding LSAT Logical Reasoning

The logical reasoning section can be boiled down to understanding an argument presented in a passage and then answering a question associated with it.

Easy, right? Not so fast!

A key part of many of the logical reasoning questions is identifying a flaw in the argument presented. Word choice plays a heavy role in this, so looking at the words that connect statements and provide structure to the piece are important.

In order to succeed in the LSAT logic reasoning section, you should build your skills in quickly identifying an arguments premises and conclusion.

A premise is a statement or proposition that leads to a conclusion. A conclusion is a judgement or decision. So basically, a premise is the statement or argument made that directly leads to a conclusion.

Both of these can be identified by identifying key words in the text. Be on the lookout for:

  • Words that indicate premises (“Because”, “since”, and “for”)
  • Words that indicate conclusion (“Therefore”, “thus” , “as a result”) and,
  • Words that indicate conflict (“Although”, “While”, “However”)

It may even help you to quickly circle these keywords to help you understand the argument, the conclusion, and the counter-argument presented in a logic game question.

Now, we mentioned identifying a flaw in the argument. This is the next piece of the recipe for the LSAT logical reasoning section: identifying whether an argument is valid or invalid.

An argument is valid if the conclusion logically follows a premise. In contrast, it’s not valid if it does not logically follow a premise.

This probably sounds pretty easy right about now, but this is where most people get tripped up when it comes to “flaw in reasoning” questions on the LSAT. To perform well, you have to understand one very important thing:

The absolute truth does not matter in the logical reasoning section.

(Video) LSAT Logical Reasoning | Logical Reasoning Basics

The question you answer could come to a conclusion that you know is not true, but that’s not what you’re looking for. You’re looking at the argument, and the reasoning. More specifically, you’re looking for a flaw in the reasoning, not in the actual facts.

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Types of Arguments

On the test and in your study materials, you’ll come across two main types of arguments pretty frequently. These are arguments using inductive reasoning and deductive reasoning.

Inductive reasoning means that the argument only gives some support for the conclusion- i.e. the conclusion states that something is highly likely. Basically, the premises support the conclusion.

In deductive reasoning, the premise gives complete support for the conclusion, which is stated without a doubt.

In both types of arguments, you must look for any flaws in the reasoning that led to the conclusion to decide if it is valid.

Now that you know the two main types of arguments on the LSAT, let’s look at the types of flaws you’ll be identifying in those arguments.

Flaws in the LSAT Logical Reasoning Section

There are many types of flaws to identify in the logical reasoning section, but don’t be overwhelmed.

When you train yourself to identify a flaw, it becomes much easier to recognize why the flaw is a flaw.

Plus, you’ll begin to notice that once you’ve seen a flaw, you’ll begin seeing the same ones frequently, just framed in a different context.

Here are some of the flaws in reasoning that appear on the LSAT logical reasoning section:

  • Correlation equals causation
  • Unrepresentative Sample
  • Error of equivocation
  • Ad Hominem attacks (we know we said you wouldn’t have to learn Latin – this means an argument against a person, not the position they’ve chosen)
  • Circular reasoning
  • Error of conditional reasoning
  • Appeal to opinion
  • Overgeneralization

Correlation equals causation and unrepresentative sample make it to the top of the list because they’re the most common flawed reasoning examples to appear on the LSAT. We recommend you brush up on all of these; however, you should take great care to know how to identify a correlation equals causation argument and when an unrepresentative sample is being used.

Correlation equals causation means that the speaker or author concludes that because two events or characteristics happened at the same time, or in quick succession, they must be related. I.e, one of the two caused the other.

In unrepresentative samples, the author draws a conclusion about a larger group of people or things based on a smaller sample of that group that we have no reason to believe is representative of the group as a whole.

When planning your study strategy for this portion of the LSAT, make sure that you familiarize yourself with all of these different types of flawed reasoning examples. After all, logical reasoning questions make up about 50% of your LSAT score- so having a solid study strategy in this area is key for your success!

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(Video) Mastering The LSAT Logical Reasoning Section

The Different Types of LSAT Logical Reasoning Questions You’ll See

The types of questions you’ll see in the LSAT logical reasoning section can be broken down into seven types. We’ve talked a lot about the flaw questions; these are often the most tricky. However, there are six others, including:

  • Assumption Questions
  • Inference Questions
  • Paradox Questions
  • Principle Questions
  • Strengthen Questions
  • Weaken Questions

Assumption questions ask you to find a gap between evidence and conclusion – i.e., identifying an assumption that was made.

Inference questions ask you to find the statement that is most supported by the argument.

Paradox questions have you identifying the answer choice that holds the most similar argument structure to the one in the passage.

Principle asks you to identify the answer that is the best example of the idea, or principle, in the argument.

Strengthen asks you to find the statement that best supports the author’s stance and the conclusion, while Weaken questions ask you to find the opposite.

Now that you know the types of questions you’ll be answering, let’s quickly go over some LSAT logical reasoning tips:

The logical reasoning sections each carry approximately 24-26 questions and you’ll have 35 minutes to work through each section. This means you’ve got to use your time efficiently when reading the passages and answering the prompts. Here are our favorite tips to navigating this challenging portion of the LSAT.

Read Carefully, and Underline Key Words and Phrases

Above, we talked about some key words and phrases that indicated the structure of the argument, premises and conclusion. While reading the prompt on the logical reasoning test, look for these words and note them with underlines or circles. This will help you mentally check in with structure you’re looking for, and help you understand the elements of the argument.

Figure Out the Question Type

We listed out some question types for you that frequently appear on the LSAT. A quick scan of the question will tell you what type of question it is – in other words, what you’re looking for. Always make sure you revisit the question before wading into the answer choices to ensure you’ve found the right elements in the argument above.

Check In With Yourself On Premises and Conclusions

Before answering the question, review in your mind what the premises you identified were, as well as the conclusion. The LSAT is long and test-takers tend to have mental fatigue around this portion of the test. Hence, it helps to ask yourself exactly what you understood from the text before you answer.

Eliminate Wrong Answers First

Eliminating answer choices that obviously can’t be right is a strategy that works on every test, but especially on the LSAT. Oftentimes, the differences between the right answer and the closest answer are subtle and designed to test your keen understanding and reasoning. Eliminating choices helps you zero in on the correct answer without using valuable brainspace to evaluate answers that simply can’t be true.

Guide to Logical Reasoning on the LSAT - CRUSH The LSAT 2023 (8)

Main Takeaways

There’s no doubt about it; the logical reasoning section on the LSAT is profoundly challenging. However, it’s doable as long as you set your study strategy early and continually test yourself with LSAT logical reasoning practice questions. The more you study on the real types of questions used on the LSAT, the more you’ll begin to see the same flawed reasoning over and over in different contexts.

Guide to Logical Reasoning on the LSAT - CRUSH The LSAT 2023 (9)

In addition to some solid LSAT practice question materials, you’ll want to invest in a quality study program that helps explain the concepts and methods that the LSAT is looking for when it comes to dissecting arguments.

There are several amazing programs online, and we’ve taken the guesswork out of choosing the right one for you. Check out our quick comparison table to look at the features of the top five LSAT prep review courses, or read our in-depth reviews on each to find the right review for you.

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Bryce Welker

(Video) LSAT Logical Reasoning | Tips & Strategies

Bryce Welker is a regular contributor to Forbes,, and Business Insider. After graduating from San Diego State University he went on to earn his Certified Public Accountant license and created to share his knowledge and experience to help other accountants become CPAs too. As Seen On Forbes


Is the LSAT changing in 2023? ›

As of October 2019, all parties have settled. The result is that they will work together to identify additional accommodations for people with disabilities and also replace the logic games by the year 2023 with a new analytical reasoning section.

How do I pass logical reasoning on the LSAT? ›

Read each question carefully. Make sure that you understand the meaning of each part of the question. Make sure that you understand the meaning of each answer choice and the ways in which each may or may not relate to the question posed.

What is the structure of LSAT 2023? ›

As per the official LSAT exam pattern 2023, the exam will be of two parts. Part 1 will have five 35-minute sections - one reading comprehension, one analytical reasoning, and two logical reasoning sections, in addition to an unscored section, called the variable section.

When should you take the LSAT for fall 2023? ›

Plan on taking the LSAT no later than the Summer of your Junior year or Fall of senior year, one year prior to your expected entry into law school. A Summer test is preferable because you will receive the results early enough to be in the first wave of applicants.

What is the easiest month to take the LSAT? ›

Since the difficulty of the LSAT is carefully calibrated and curved, no test date is easier than another. Popular times like June and September may fill up early, but that is merely a reflection of the academic calendar since many test-takers are in school and have the most time to focus on the test during the summer.

Is 2 months enough time to study for the LSAT? ›

Two months is the optimal LSAT prep schedule for many students. While you can make great score improvements with one intense month of study, practice, and review, most expert LSAT faculty will recommend a longer schedule if one is possible for you.

What is the hardest LSAT section to improve? ›

On the other hand, Reading Comprehension is the generally the most difficult section to improve. That is because your reading speed plays a big role in how well you perform, and reading speed is challenging to substantially increase in a short period of time.

Is Logical Reasoning the hardest part of the LSAT? ›

The Logical Reasoning portion of the LSAT accounts for half of your total score. Thus, you can see why it is important to have a good handle on this section! However, many people find this section to also be the hardest.

Is 3 weeks enough to study for LSAT? ›

For most students, a three-month period of preparation (of approximately 20 hours per week) is a great goal. This is, of course, an estimate; most students are not all students. To find out how much LSAT prep time you're likely to need, we recommend taking a practice LSAT to get a baseline score.

Is 4 Months enough to study for the LSAT? ›

There is plenty of time to improve and achieve your ideal LSAT score. With approximately four months until test time, you should spend at least 10 hours a week studying. Ideally, one to two hours a day should be spent on studying.

What score is a 70% on the LSAT? ›

Note that a score in this range places you, on average, in the 98th percentile, meaning that only 2% of all those who take the LSAT score a 170 or above. To get a score in the 160s you should aim for getting 70-85 of the questions correct, or around 70%.

What is the hardest LSAT month? ›

You'll look at my LSAT PrepTest Raw Score Conversion Charts and calculations of what it takes to get an LSAT score of 160 or 170. Using that data, you'll find that the December exam consistently has the easiest "curve," and the June exam consistently has the hardest.

Can I get into law school with a 139 LSAT score? ›

While you may be able to apply and even be accepted into a law school with a lower LSAT score, there is a cut-off for acceptable application scores. If you are consistently scoring lower than 145, you may need to consider significant studying and a retake before applying to law schools.

Can I get into law school with a 155 LSAT? ›

A score of 155 on the LSAT is a classic 'in-between' score. While the score is not too low, it will also not put you in the cream of LSAT test takers. An LSAT score of 155 can at best be classified as an average score which will put you in the hunt for a decent law school. The LSAT is scored on a scale of 120-180.

What is a good LSAT score without studying? ›

The LSAT is scored on a 120-180 scale.

From our independent research, we've found that students who take the LSAT without studying achieve scores between 145 and 153.

Which part of the LSAT is the hardest? ›

Reading Comprehension

Many students will find this section to be the most tedious of the LSAT because this section was designed so that test-takers have no prior knowledge of this section. Those who find themselves in the throes of the LSAT reading comprehension section will have 35 minutes to complete four parts.

What is the average LSAT score for first time takers? ›

What's the average LSAT score for first-time takers? The LSAC found that first-time test takers typically scored a 151, while second-time test takers scored a 151.7. Mean LSAT scores were highest for second-time test takers, while third-time test takers had the lowest score.

How many hours a day should I study LSAT? ›

If take 5 months to study for the LSAT, you'd need to spend between 12 to 18 hours every week, on average. This means you'd need to spend between 2.5 and 3.5 hours a day studying, 5 days a week. If you are on an extended 6-month schedule, you only need to study a manageable 10 to 15 hours per week.

What month is best for LSAT? ›

LSAT Admissions Cycle

June, July, and September test dates are most popular for that because they allow for plenty of time to get scores back before applications need to be turned in.

How many LSAT attempts is too much? ›

Five times within the current and five past testing years (the period in which LSAC reports scores to law schools). A total of seven times over a lifetime.

How to crack Logical Reasoning? ›

Tips to score well in logical reasoning questions
  1. Always take a mock test first. Always take mock test papers, online websites, and also other resources that can help you crack such tests with ease. ...
  2. Practice practice practice! ...
  3. Make inferences from your observations. ...
  4. Develop your soft skills.
Oct 10, 2021

What topic should I start for Logical Reasoning? ›

Aspirants need to study all the below topics under the Logical Reasoning section: Alphanumeric series. Reasoning Analogies. Artificial Language.

How can I improve my Logical Reasoning? ›

So, one should be good at games with a big logic or problem-solving component, like chess or Sudoku Crossword Puzzles, Word search, Brain teasers, riddles, which induce the player's cognitive and creative senses and equip the mind with inquisitive ideas; the preconditions of logical learning.

What did Obama score on the LSAT? ›

The easiest to predict, by far, is President Barack Obama's score, mostly because we have some data. Based on admissions records, we can deduce — somewhat reliably — that Barry-O scored between the 94th-98th percentile on his LSAT. Using today's grading system, that'd place him somewhere around a 170.

Which LSAT section is easiest? ›

LSAT Logic Games is the easiest section of the LSAT to improve. The marginal returns on this section compared to the Logical Reasoning and Reading Comprehension are huge. But, most people are still hard pressed to see improvements. Why?

What is the easiest LSAT section to improve? ›

Generally, the reading comprehension section of the LSAT is the easiest section to figure out why the correct answer is, in fact, correct. However, if you still don't understand, PLEASE ask someone for help! I always try to answer any questions left in the comments, so feel free to ask your questions below.

What is a good LSAT Logical Reasoning score? ›

The LSAT is scored on a range of 120 to 180 with 180 being the highest possible score. The average LSAT score is around 152 which will put you right in the middle. This means that you'll need to get about 60 out of 94 to 106 questions right to get the average score.

What is the fastest way to solve LSAT Logic Games? ›

Draw small diagrams for LSAT Logic Games

If you practice making small diagrams, you'll find they're just as easy to understand as large diagrams. Small diagrams are much better than large ones. They're very quick to draw. And you can place a small diagram in a small space near the question.

What percentile is a 162 on the LSAT? ›

LSAT Scoring Chart
LSAT Score%Below
12 more rows

How many hours should I study for the LSAT to get a 170? ›

We recommend that most students look to spend 150–300 hours on LSAT prep; that's a healthy range over a two or three-month period at around 20–25 hours per week, which is a standard amount for most students.

How much can you increase your LSAT score in a month? ›

The Short Answer Is

Ultimately, most people improve by 10-20 points or more, but there are outliers who will improve by a lot more (and also, unfortunately, by a lot less).

How hard is it to get a 180 on the LSAT? ›

With the LSAT, the percentile for a 180 is 99.97%. Thus, in numerical terms, if you have a 180, then in a room of 10,000 people you have one of the three highest scores. With roughly 100,000 LSATs administered in the past year, that would suggest that about 30 people received a perfect score.

Can I get into law school with a 143 LSAT score? ›

Quite frankly, if your LSAT score is below 147, it will be difficult to be admitted to an accredited law school, not impossible but very difficult. Your GPA will have to do some heavy lifting. If your LSAT score is 150 or above, your chances increase if you choose prospective law schools wisely.

How many times a week should you study for the LSAT? ›

If you would like to increase your LSAT score by 10-11 points, then you should study for about 8 hours per week (over 3 months). This is a total of 100-150 hours. If you would like to increase your LSAT score by 12-20 points, you should study for 10-15 hours per week (over 3 months).

How hard is it to get 173 on LSAT? ›

An exceptional LSAT score will be somewhere around a 173, which is the 99th percentile, according to the Law School Admissions Council—if you received a 173, you scored better than 99 percent of all test takers.

How many questions can I miss on the LSAT to get a 170? ›

To achieve a score of 170 requires a test taker to correctly answer 90 out of 101 questions.

What score is a 50% on the LSAT? ›

Test after test, a 151 scaled score is approximately a 50th percentile score.

How many questions can you miss on the LSAT to get a 175? ›

Scoring a 175 means you missed 5 questions on the test, which can be the equivalent of an entire logic game. Scoring a 170 means you missed 10 or 11 questions, which is nearly half of an entire section. The point of all this is that there is room to make mistakes.

Is the LSAT in person 2023? ›

About the Test Format

Given the expressed preference of the substantial majority of test takers, LSAC will continue to provide the LSAT in an online, live remote-proctored format.

Are law school applications up or down 2023? ›

Though it is still early in the 2023 application process, figures from the Law School Admission Council suggest that enrollment for the upcoming fall will be flat or down slightly. The number of applicants is down nearly 5% compared to this time last year, though that gap has been decreasing over time.

How much is the LSAT for 2023? ›

If I've already taken the LSAT and want to take it again, what would it cost? The cost of the LSAT is the same for both first-time and repeat test takers. For the August 2022-June 2023 testing years, LSAT registration costs $215.

Are they phasing out the LSAT? ›

(Reuters) - The arm of the American Bar Association that accredits U.S. law schools on Friday voted to eliminate the longstanding requirement that schools use the Law School Admission Test or other standardized test when admitting students.

Is 3 months enough to study for LSAT? ›

For most students, a three-month period of preparation (of approximately 20 hours per week) is a great goal. This is, of course, an estimate; most students are not all students. To find out how much LSAT prep time you're likely to need, we recommend taking a practice LSAT to get a baseline score.


1. LSAT Logic Games Pt. 1 (Sequencing)
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2. Famous Flaws | LSAT Logical Reasoning
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3. How I scored Perfectly on the LSAT Logic Games!
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4. tips for the lsat :)
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5. LSAC Removing LSAT Logic Games?
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6. Choosing the *RIGHT* Answer EVERY TIME on the LSAT (Harvard Law Grad || 177 Scorer)
(Moore Tutoring)
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